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Author Fertig, B.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Dennison, W.C. doi  openurl
  Title Oyster delta N-15 as a Bioindicator of Potential Wastewater and Poultry Farming Impacts and Degraded Water Quality in a Subestuary of Chesapeake Bay Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Journal Of Coastal Research Abbreviated Journal J. Coast. Res.  
  Volume 30 Issue 5 Pages 881-892  
  Keywords Bioindicators; nitrogen sources; water quality; stable nitrogen isotopes; oysters; poultry manures; land use; land cover  
  Abstract Anthropogenic nitrogen contributes to water quality degradation, but it is difficult to distinguish sources once they are mixed in coastal ecosystems. Natural abundances of stable nitrogen isotopes (delta N-15) were measured in oyster (Crassostrea virginica) tissues (muscle, gills, and mantle) during summer 2006 to summer 2008 to identify nitrogen sources in Monie Bay (a subestuary of Chesapeake Bay) receiving freshwater inputs from three tributary creeks. The creeks (estimated flushing times: 3.5, 5.7, and 37.2 d) vary in size and potential nitrogen sources: septic systems and poultry operations (Monie Creek), crop fertilizer (Little Monie Creek), and wetlands, forest, or both (Little Creek). Grand mean oyster tissue delta N-15 values (11.8 +/- 0.4 parts per thousand in muscle, 10.4 +/- 0.4 parts per thousand in gills, and 10.5 +/- 0.3 parts per thousand in mantle) indicated a mixture of human and animal sources. Potential nitrogen loss from denitrification (15.1-24.5%) likely did not substantially modify isotopic values, and delta N-15 values were greater than would be expected from atmospheric sources, refuting these alternative explanations. Though dilute, spatial patterns supported the inference that human waste, poultry waste, or both entered Monie Bay from its watershed and the adjacent Wicomico River watershed (via mixing). Calculated nitrogen generation from poultry manure in the watershed (containing 2.5 x 10(3) people) was 2.9 x 10(4) to 1.0 x 10(6) kg of total nitrogen (TN) per year (equivalent to 6.8 x 10(3)-2.3 x 10(5) people), whereas throughout Delmarva Peninsula (containing 1.2 x 10(6) people) it was 3.9 x 10(6) to 1.3 x 10(8) kg TN y(-1) (equivalent to 9.0 x 10(5)-3.1 x 10(8) people). Conservatively estimated (based on 0.038 kg chicken(-1) y(-1)), poultry in the Monie Bay watershed generated an amount of nitrogen equivalent to that generated by 263% of the human population. Throughout Delmarva Peninsula, poultry generated an amount of nitrogen equivalent to that generated by 76% of the human population. Estuaries commonly receive nutrients from both inside and outside their watersheds, and oyster delta N-15 values elucidated this process locally.  
  Address [Fertig, Benjamin; Carruthers, Tim J. B.; Dennison, William C.] Univ Maryland, Ctr Environm Sci, Integrat & Applicat Network, Cambridge, MD 21613 USA, Email: fertig@marine.rutgers.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Coastal Education & Research Foundation Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-0208 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000342967700002 Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4328  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4328
 

 
Author Carruthers, T.J.B.; Beckert, K.; Schupp, C.A.; Saxby, T.A.; Kumer, J.P.; Thomas, J.E.; Sturgis, B.; Dennison, W.C.; Williams, M.; Fisher, T.; Zimmerman, C.S. doi  openurl
  Title Improving management of a mid-Atlantic coastal barrier island through assessment of habitat condition Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Abbreviated Journal Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.  
  Volume 116 Issue Pages 74-86  
  Keywords Barrier islands; coastal zone management; ecosystem management; integrated assessment; natural resources; nature conservation  
  Abstract To achieve desired environmental outcomes, environmental condition and trends need to be rigorously measured and communicated to resource managers, scientists, and a broader general audience. However, there is often a disconnect between responsive ecosystem monitoring and decision making for strategic long-term management. This project demonstrates how historical monitoring data can be synthesized and used for future planning and decision making, thereby closing the management feedback cycle. This study linked disparate datasets, collected for a variety of purposes and across multiple temporal and spatial scales, in order to assess and quantify current habitat conditions. The results inform integrated resource management decision-making at Assateague Island National Seashore (Maryland and Virginia, USA) by using ecological reference conditions to identify monitoring needs, areas of high vulnerability, and areas with potential for improved management. The approach also provides a framework that can be applied in the future to assess the effectiveness of these management decisions on the condition of island habitats, and is a replicable demonstration of incorporating diverse monitoring datasets into an adaptive management cycle.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4172  
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Author Dennison, W.C.;Oliver,P. url  openurl
  Title Studying Nature In Situ: Immersive Education for Better Integrated Water Management Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 150 Issue Pages 26-33  
  Keywords Immersive education; experiential teaching; trans-disciplinary  
  Abstract The term immersive education is currently used in two educational areas – language education, which involves students being totally immersed in a language and its culture; and virtual education, where teachers use computers and simulation games to immerse learners in a virtual, computer-generated environment that mimics a real-world environment and allows learners to interact with it. This paper uses examples from university teaching practices in marine studies and coastal zone management to make a case for a third definition for immersive education in tertiary settings – educating water managers by immersing and guiding them through real-world situations that involve understanding and managing water, biodiversity, catchments, and people, and the interactions between them. Immersive education of this third kind, and traditional tertiary education approaches such as lectures and demonstrations, are compared, and the advantages of immersive education are discussed. The examples from practice and discussion presented show immersive education as being experiential and real, process-driven, trans-disciplinary, collaborative, participatory, and active, encouraging critical thinking and a renegotiation of power in relationships between participants. Such immersive education develops passion and persuasive capacity in students, providing personal experiences that are memorable and potentially life-changing. Challenges to immersive education in tertiary education, including lack of finances, teacher burn-out, safety concerns, and inertia to maintain the status quo of traditional education, are highlighted, as are ways to overcome these.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Universities Council on Water Resources Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4267  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4267
 

 
Author Fertig, B.M.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Dennison, W.C. openurl 
  Title Oyster deltaN-15 as a Bioindicator of Potential Wastewater and Poultry Farming Impacts and Degraded Water Quality in a Subestuary of Chesapeake Bay Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Journal of Coastal Research Abbreviated Journal J. Coast. Res.  
  Volume In Press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Bioindicators, nitrogen sources, water quality, stable nitrogen isotopes, oysters, poultry manures, land use, land cover  
  Abstract Anthropogenic nitrogen contributes to water quality degradation, but it is difficult to distinguish sources once they are mixed in coastal ecosystems. Natural abundances of stable nitrogen isotopes (deltaN-15) were measured in oyster (Crassostrea virginica) tissues (muscle, gills, and mantle) during summer 2006 to summer 2008 to identify nitrogen sources in Monie Bay (a subestuary of Chesapeake Bay) receiving freshwater inputs from three tributary creeks. The creeks (estimated flushing times: 3.5, 5.7, and 37.2 d) vary in size and potential nitrogen sources: septic systems and poultry operations (Monie Creek), crop fertilizer (Little Monie Creek), and wetlands, forest, or both (Little Creek). Grand mean oyster tissue deltaN-15 values (11.8 ± 0.4‰ in muscle, 10.4 ± 0.4‰ in gills, and 10.5 ± 0.3‰ in mantle) indicated a mixture of human and animal sources. Potential nitrogen loss from denitrification (15.1–24.5%) likely did not substantially modify isotopic values, and deltaN-15 values were greater than would be expected from atmospheric sources, refuting these alternative explanations. Though dilute, spatial patterns supported the inference that human waste, poultry waste, or both entered Monie Bay from its watershed and the adjacent Wicomico River watershed (via mixing). Calculated nitrogen generation from poultry manure in the watershed (containing 2.5 x 10ˆ3 people) was 2.9 x 10ˆ4 to 1.0 x 10ˆ6 kg of total nitrogen (TN) per year (equivalent to 6.8 x 10ˆ3–2.3 x 10ˆ5 people), whereas throughout Delmarva Peninsula (containing 1.2 x 10ˆ6 people) it was 3.9 x 10ˆ6 to 1.3 x 10ˆ8 kg TN yˆ1 (equivalent to 9.0 x 10ˆ5–3.1 x 10ˆ8 people). Conservatively estimated (based on 0.038 kg chickenˆ-1 yˆ-1), poultry in the Monie Bay watershed generated an amount of nitrogen equivalent to that generated by 263% of the human population. Throughout Delmarva Peninsula, poultry generated an amount of nitrogen equivalent to that generated by 76% of the human population. Estuaries commonly receive nutrients from both inside and outside their watersheds, and oyster deltaN-15 values elucidated this process locally.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4191  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4191
 

 
Author Fertig, B.M.; O’Neil, J.M.; Beckert, K.A.; Cain, C.J.; Needham, D.M.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Dennison, W.C. doi  openurl
  Title Elucidating terrestrial nutrient sources to a coastal lagoon, Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, USA Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Abbreviated Journal Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.  
  Volume 116 Issue Pages 1-10  
  Keywords coastal lagoons; nitrogen; anthropogenic factors; water quality; land use; Maryland; Chincoteague Bay  
  Abstract Long-term non-linear ecosystem-scale changes in water quality and biotic communities in coastal lagoons have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressures. In light of incipient changes in Johnson Bay (an embayment of Chincoteague Bay, Maryland-Virginia, USA), examination of nitrogen sources was conducted through synoptic water quality monitoring, stable nitrogen isotope signatures (deltaN-15) of in situ bioindicators, and denitrification estimates. These data were placed in the context of long-term and broader spatial analyses. Despite various watershed protection efforts, multiyear summer time studies (2004-2007) suggested that high levels of terrestrially derived nutrients still enter Johnson Bay. Total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay were 132% the concentrations in the broader Chincoteague Bay during the late 1970s (mean 2004-2007 was 40.0 – 73.2 µM). Comparing total nitrogen concentrations in Johnson Bay to St. Martin River (consistently the most eutrophic region of these coastal bays), Johnson Bay has increased from 62.5% to 82.5% of the concentrations in St. Martin River during the late 1970s. Though specific sources of nitrogen inputs have not yet been definitively identified, the long-term increase in total nitrogen concentrations occurred despite increased and continued conservation and protection measures. We suggest that investigating nutrient sources can reveal potentially ineffective nutrient policies and that this knowledge can be applied towards other coastal lagoons.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4192  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4192
 

 
Author Hills, T.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Chape, S.; Donohoe, P. doi  openurl
  Title A social and ecological imperative for ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change in the Pacific Islands Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Sustainability Science Abbreviated Journal Sustain Sci  
  Volume In press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ecosystem-based adaptation; Pacific Islands; Ecosystem-based approaches; Climate change; Adaptation  
  Abstract Climate change is predicted to have a range of impacts on Pacific Island ecosystems and the services they provide for current and future development. There are a number of characteristics that can make adaptation approaches that utilise the benefits of ecosystems a compelling and viable alternative to other adaptation approaches. The objective of this paper is to determine what level of relative influence technical and planning considerations currently have in guiding the recognition and application of ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approaches in the Pacific Islands context. The technical feasibility of EbA in relation to the expected impacts of climate change and the compatibility of adaptation planning processes of the Pacific Islands with EbA requirements was considered. The main barrier to fully implementing EbA in the Pacific Islands is not likely to be financial capital, but a combination of stable technical capacity within government departments to advise communities on EbA opportunities and the compatibility of planning frameworks.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4293  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4293
 

 
Author Oliver,P.;Dennison, W.C. url  openurl
  Title Popular Education for Water Sustainability: Three Lessons from Reflective Practice Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 150 Issue Pages 18-25  
  Keywords Popular education;community outreach;watershed management  
  Abstract Between them, the authors of this paper have over sixty years experience in water education working in primary and secondary schools, universities, field study centres, professional development programs; and with community, industry, and government groups, focusing on coastal zones and catchments. Over the last three years, they have undertaken a systematic process of personal and dialogic reflection and deliberation on this experience, particularly in the area of popular education. This paper presents three key water education lessons gained from this iterative process and provides examples to justify the sagacity of this choice. First and foremost, popular water educators really need to know their participants, what is important to them, why, and what they know already. Second, popular water educators should give their participants an opportunity to share with others what they have learned about water. Lastly, metaphorically speaking, popular educators need to focus their practice on the head, the heart, and the hands. Knowledge, emotion, and action are dialectically interrelated. Integrating them in popular water education is a challenging yet satisfying task that can have significant outcomes.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Universities Council on Water Resources Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4266  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4266
 

 
Author Schupp, C.A.; Winn, N.T.; Pearl, T.L.; Kumer, J.P.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Zimmerman, C.S. openurl 
  Title Restoration of overwash processes creates piping plover (Charadrius melodus) habitat on a barrier island (Assateague Island, Maryland) Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2013 Publication Estuarine Coastal And Shelf Science Abbreviated Journal Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.  
  Volume 116 Issue Pages 11-20  
  Keywords Charadrius melodus; coastal engineering; overwash; piping plover; rare species; vegetation cover; Regional terms; USA; Maryland; Assateague Island  
  Abstract On Assateague Island, an undeveloped barrier island along Maryland and Virginia, a foredune was constructed to protect the island from the erosion and breaching threat caused by permanent jetties built to maintain Ocean City Inlet. Scientists and engineers integrated expertise in vegetation, wildlife, geomorphology, and coastal engineering in order to design a habitat restoration project that would be evaluated in terms of coastal processes rather than static features. Development of specific restoration targets, thresholds for intervention, and criteria to evaluate long-term project success were based on biological and geomorphological data and coastal engineering models. A detailed long-term monitoring plan was established to measure project sustainability. The foredune unexpectedly acted as near-total barrier to both overwash and wind, and the dynamic ecosystem underwent undesirable habitat changes including conversion of early-succession beach habitat to herbaceous and shrub communities, diminishing availability of foraging habitat and thereby reducing productivity of the Federally-listed Threatened Charadrius melodus (piping plover). To address these impacts, multiple notches were cut through the constructed foredune. The metric for initial geomorphological success-estoration of at least one overwash event per year across the constructed foredune, if occurring elsewhere on the island-was reached. New overwash fans increased island stability by increasing interior island elevation. At every notch, areas of sparse vegetation increased and the new foraging habitat was utilized by breeding pairs during the 2010 breeding season. However, the metric for long-term biological success-an increase to 37% sparsely vegetated habitat on the North End and an increase in piping plover productivity to 1.25 chicks fledged per breeding pair-has not yet been met. By 2010 there was an overall productivity of 1.2 chicks fledged per breeding pair and a 1.7% decrease in sparsely vegetated habitat. Ideally, overwash restoration will sustain the availability of foraging habitat, but future foredune modifications may be necessary to maintain or increase overwash processes and piping plover habitat in the project area. Published by Elsevier Ltd.  
  Address Assateague Isl Natl Seashore, Berlin, MD 21801 USA, Email: Courtney_Schupp@nps.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-7714 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes WOS:000314556800002 Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ nemazie @ Serial 4275  
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Author Cahoon, L.B.; Halkides, C.J.; Song, B.; Williams, C.M.; Dubay, G.R.; Fries, A.S.; Farmer, J.; Fridrich, W.; Brookshire, C. doi  openurl
  Title Swine waste as a source of natural products: A carotenoid antioxidant Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Agricultural Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue 6 Pages 806-815  
  Keywords Swine Waste; Purple Phototrophic Bacteria; Carotenoids; Spirilloxanthin  
  Abstract Development of Environmentally Superior Tech- nologies for swine waste management has fo- cused on extraction of products with relatively low unit values. Analyses of the bacterial com- position of swine waste lagoon samples con- firmed the presence of several purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) species known to produce a variety of carotenoids. We examined a carote- noid naturally abundant in North Carolina swine waste lagoons dominated by PNSB. Analytical methods including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) con- firmed the identity of the dominant carotenoid as spirilloxanthin, C42H60O2, with 13 conjugated double bonds. This structure confers antioxi- dant properties as good as those of carotenoids currently marketed as antioxidants. Visual esti- mates of the “redness” of swine waste lagoon liquids were highly correlated with carotenoid content. Spirilloxanthin concentrations in a la- goon with a strong PNSB bloom were approxi- mately 0.5 grams·m−3. These results support further investigations into the potential for ex- tracting commercially valuable natural products from swine waste lagoons.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SciRes Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4292  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4292
 

 
Author Carruthers, T.J.B.;Carter, S.L.; Lookingbill, T.R.; Florkowski, L.N.; Hawkey, J.M.; Dennison, W.C. doi  openurl
  Title A Habitat-Based Framework for Communicating Natural Resource Condition Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication ISRN Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2012 Issue Pages 13pp  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Progress in achieving desired environmental outcomes needs to be rigorously measured and reported for effective environmental management. Two major challenges in achieving this are, firstly, how to synthesize monitoring data in a meaningful way at appropriate temporal and spatial scales and, secondly, how to present results in a framework that allows for effective communication to resource managers and scientists as well as a broader general audience. This paper presents a habitat framework, developed to assess the natural resource condition of the urban Rock Creek Park (Washington, DC, USA), providing insight on how to improve future assessments. Vegetation and stream GIS layers were used to classify three dominant habitat types, Forest, Wetland, and Artificial-terrestrial. Within Rock Creek Park, Forest habitats were assessed as being in good condition (67% threshold attainment of desired condition), Wetland habitats to be in fair condition (49% attainment), and Artificial-terrestrial habitats to be in degraded condition (26% attainment), resulting in an assessed fair/good condition (60% attainment; weighted by habitat area) for all natural resources in Rock Creek Park. This approach has potential to provide assessment of resource condition for diverse ecosystems and provides a basis for addressing management questions across multiple spatial scales.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UMCES @ ajones @ Serial 4106  
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Permanent link to this record:  http://ian.umces.edu/literature/show.php?record=4106
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