Chapter 12: In situ measurements: utilizing the ever-growing toolbox of sensors and platforms
As highlighted in the title of this chapter, the array of in situ instruments available for coastal monitoring is increasing rapidly, "the ever-growing toolbox,"(Figure 12.1). This growth is driven in part by research and development into new or existing sensors, sensor platforms, data logging, and data telemetry. Because there are such rapid changes in the field of in situ monitoring, this chapter gives specific focus to many emerging technologies, such as nutrient analyzers and pathogen detectors. Although these examples have been included to illustrate the cutting edge of in situ monitoring, there are often inherent challenges of new instruments do not have a long history of use and application. Therefore, it must not be forgotten that there are many well established in situ instruments to consider ranging from the classic and very simple Secchi disc to more complex water quality probes. In situ monitoring in itself is a very large topic and is covered in more detail by many books.1 The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to provide a brief discussion on why to use in situ monitoring, to identify what the most suitable situations and tools to use for in situ monitoring are, and to identify some of the associated challenges with in situ monitoring.