MMAs: What, why, and where (Page 1)  
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MMAs: What, why, and where

One approach to the development of better coastal and marine policy and management is the concept of marine managed areas (MMAs). A MMA is an area of ocean, or a combination of land and ocean, where all human activities are managed toward common goals. MMAs are a form of ecosystem-based management, where all elements—biophysical, human, and institutional—of a particular system are considered together. This document describes what MMAs are, why they are important, and where they are implemented.


Author(s)Orbach M, Bunce Karrer L
IAN Author(s)Caroline Donovan, Tim Carruthers, Bill Dennison
Date Published2010-09-13
ProjectConservation International: Science communication products
Number of Pages16
Filesize15 MB
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